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Medical Retina

Medical Retina involves expertise in the non-surgical management of such conditions as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal dystrophies.


Oculoplastic procedures include the repair of droopy eyelids (blepharoplasty), repair of tear duct obstructions, orbital fracture repairs, removal of tumours in and around the eyes and eyelid reconstruction.

Ophthalmic Pathology

Ophthalmic pathology deals with abnormal growths of tissue that may progress to being a mass or tumour. Such diseases may lead to a disorder of a structure or function and has specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by such things as infectious disease, autoimmune diseases or any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress or social problems, eg injury, disability, syndrome or infection.

Cataract and Refractive Surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called “crystalline lens”) that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract, causing impairment or loss of vision. Many patients’ first symptoms are strong glare from lights and small light sources at night, along with reduced acuity at low light levels. During cataract surgery, a patient’s cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a synthetic lens to restore the lens’s transparency. Advanced cataract surgery incorporates the use of a laser at the time of surgery.

Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. The most common methods today use excimer lasers to reshape the curvature of the cornea. Successful refractive eye surgery can reduce or cure common vision disorders such as myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism.

Corneal Transplantation

Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft). When the entire cornea is replaced it is known as penetrating keratoplasty and when only part of the cornea is replaced it is known as lamellar keratoplasty. Keratoplasty simply means surgery to the cornea. The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber.

Collagen Cross-Linking

Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin (vitamin B2) and UV-A Light, is a para-surgical treatment for corneal ectasia such as keratoconus.


Intrastromal corneal rings (or intracorneal rings) are small devices implanted in the eye to correct vision. A typical vision correction using corneal rings involves a small incision in the cornea of the eye, and inserting two crescent or semi-circular shaped ring segments between the layers of the corneal stroma, one on each side of the pupil. The embedding of the rings in the cornea has the effect of flattening the cornea and changing the refraction of light passing through the cornea on its way into the eye.